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高职高考英语阅读理解猜词义的小技巧!

2018-10-21 10:02www.gdsgzgk.cn广东省高职高考网

 

1类属法

 

即通过类属来推测词义。如:

 

Bananas,oranges, pineapples, coconuts and some other kinds of fruit grow in warm areas.

说明:从句意我们知道pineapples coconuts bananas, oranges是同类事物,同属水果(准确地说是菠萝椰子”)

 

2推理法

 

即根据文章的前后语境推出生词的词义。如:

 

■Thatmuseum is so immense that it will be impossible to see all the exhibits in oneday.

说明:既然一天之内看不完所有的展品,那么immense 的意思应该是很大了。

 

■Everyoneagreed that the woman in the photo was gorgeous. It was easy to see why she hadwon the beauty contest.

说明:既然她在选美比赛中获胜,说明她很美丽”(gorgeous)

 

3列举法

 

即通过对文章所列举的事物来猜测生词的词义。如:

 

■Childrenlike such creatures as dogs and monkeys.

说明:像 dogs  monkeys 之类的“creatures”,显然creatures的意思应是动物

 

■In yourspare time, you may look through any of these periodicals: Time Magazine, NewsWeek, or The New Worker.

说明:periodical是生词,但根据其后所列举的例子,我们可以推测出它的意思可能是期刊杂志

 

4构词法

 

即根据前缀、后缀、复合、派生等构词知识判断生词的词义。如:

 

■Overworkmay cause diseases.

说明:前缀 over- 的意思是过分的,过量的,故 overwork的意思应为工作过度

 

■Therewas a dissatisfied look in the manager’s eyes.

说明:satisfied的意思是满意的,前缀 dis- 的意思是,故dissatisfied 的意思应该是不满意的

 

5对比法

 

即根据文章前后的对比关系确定生词的词义。如:

■He hadbeen getting better, but during the night his condition deteriorated .

说明:句中的 but 表明deteriorate 应该与get better 的意思相反,即恶化

 

■In manycountries there are two financial extremes, from penury to great wealth.

说明:上文说两个经济上的极端,那么下文中penury 应与great wealth 相对,即表示贫困

 

■Mrs.Smith is loquacious while her husband is the silent type.

说明:while 表对比,意为,所以loquacious 应是silent 的反义,即多嘴的

 

■If youagree, draw a circle; and a cross if you dissent.

说明:既然画圈表示同意,那么画叉便是不同意”(dissent)

 

6同位法

 

同位语是对所修饰词语的进一步说明和解释,若对所修饰的词语不熟悉,可通过其后同位语的说明或解释来确定其词义。如:

 

■Hisfather is an expert in phonetics, the study of the sounds of language.

说明:同位语 thestudy of the sounds of language 表示 phonetics 的意思应该是语音学

 

■Jean wasborn with spina bifida, a birth illness that damages the spine(脊骨).

说明:同位语 a birthillness that damages the spine 表明了spinabifida 是一种病,一种对脊骨有损害的病。

 

7释义法

 

即根据文章中所提供的释义关系来确定生词的词义。如:

 

■Theydescribed him as a loon, or a mad man.

说明:句中的or 是对loon的解释,即loona mad man同义,即表示疯子

 

■It willbe very hard but also very brittle, that is, it will break easily.

说明:句中的 that is 表明 it willbreak easily 是对brittle 的解释,从而猜测出其意为

 

■Theherdsman, who looks after sheep, earns about 500 yuan a year.

说明:定语从句 wholooks after sheep 表明herdsman 的词义为牧人

 

■Thereare three kinds of snow. One kind is a fluffy snow that is somewhat dry andfeathery?

说明:定语从句 that issomewhat dry and feathery(有点儿干、像羽毛似的)表明 fluffysnow 的意思可能是鹅毛大雪

 

8常识法

 

即根据普通常识推测生词的词义。如:

 

■It’ssaid that Bill Gates is the most affluent person in the world.

说明:根据常识,BillGates 为世界首富,所以affluent 可能是富有的

 

■As ascientist, Edison is very famous for his contrivances.

说明:根据常识,Edison为发明大王,他应因发明而闻名于世。

 

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